Prediction of School Achievement by Conscientiousness, Test Anxiety, Gender, and Intelligence: The Unique Role of Chronotype

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Dokumentart: PhDThesis
Date: 2018-03
Language: English
Faculty: 7 Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät
Department: Biologie
Advisor: Randler, Christoph (Prof. Dr.)
Day of Oral Examination: 2016-12-15
DDC Classifikation: 150 - Psychology
370 - Education
570 - Life sciences; biology
Keywords: Chronobiologie , Geschlecht , Schulleistung , Intelligenz , Prüfungsangst
Other Keywords: Gewissenhaftigkeit
School achievement
Test anxiety
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In order to extend our knowledge about school achievement and particular chronotype’s role, three studies were carried out with a grand total of 695 students. Study 1 dealt with investigating psychometric properties of the reduced version of the Persian Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (rMEQ). Participants were 268 students recruited from two different universities. The correlations between the rMEQ and depression, happiness, and general health were -.45, .48, -.41, respectively. Moreover, the factor analysis of the rMEQ resulted in a single-factor solution and the Cronbach’s α was .71. In sum, the Persian rMEQ seemed to be a reliable and valid instrument to differentiate circadian types. In the second study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness, and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and the SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening-types and intermediate-types, while intermediate-types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggested that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Study 3 examined the predictability of school achievement employing intelligence, chronotype, conscientiousness, gender, and the main subject of study in 269 students. Results showed a positive relationship between GPA and chronotype, GPA and intelligence, and between chronotype and conscientiousness. The predictors together explained 14% of variance in GPA. The variance in school achievement was explained the most by intelligence followed by gender, main subject of study, and chronotype. Chronotype was significantly correlated with school achievement even when controlled for the effects of intelligence and conscientiousness. These findings add to our knowledge about the nature of school achievement and also about the particular role of chronotype in learning.

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